According to the international classification, alcoholism is a mental illness, which is a kind of substance abuse, characterized by mental and physical dependence on alcohol (ethyl alcohol). In the later stages, it is characterized by memory lapses, damage to the central nervous system, loss of behavioral control over oneself.
Stages of disease developmentThere are three stages in the development of alcoholism. At first, the alcoholic experiences a constant urge to drink, but he can control himself. With prolonged volitional abstinence, desire disappears. At the second stage, there is a need for constant consumption of large doses of alcohol. Possible damage to internal organs and the central nervous system (reduced libido, uncontrolled urination). The third stage is characterized by an almost complete loss of cognitive-behavioral control, prolonged binges. At the same time, to achieve a state of altered consciousness, a small amount of alcohol is sufficient (damage to internal organs affects). Attempts of a sharp external interruption of hard drinking at the third stage are fraught with psychosis and even death of an alcoholic.
Basic treatmentsThere is no one-size-fits-all treatment for alcoholism because the disease combines physical, mental, social and spiritual aspects. Methods of treatment, therefore, can be divided into the following groups: